A Non-finite verb is a form of verb that is not limited by person, number or tense in a sentence and cannot act as main verb.
There are three kinds of non-finite verbs.
Infinitive verb is a non-finite verb that is made up of “to + base form of verb”.
– He likes to play football.
– Honey is sweet to taste.
– The man is too late to go.
– People gathered here to hear the news.
Certain verbs such as bid, let, make, need, dare, see, hear, etc. are used without ‘to’ and are called bare infinitive.
– Make her stand.
– Let the people go there.
– You need not leave the place.
A gerund is a form of non-finite verb which is made up by adding the ‘ing’ at the end of the base form of a verb.
– I saw her crying.
– Swimming is good for health.
– Being tired I took rest for a while.
– Seeing is believing.
A Participle is verbal but works as an adjective. Participle can be following types.
Present Participle: Present participle is made by adding ‘ing ’ to the base form.
– A swimming snake bit him in the leg.
– Don’t put your hand into boiling water.
– Look at the setting sun.
– Don’t get into a running bus.
Both of Gerund and Present Participles are made by adding ‘ing’ to the base form.
But difference between them is that A gerund functions as a noun and present participles functions as an adjective.
– Swimming is good for the people. (Here swimming is noun)
– A swimming snake bit him in the leg. (Here swimming is an adjective)
Past Participle: Past participle is made by adding ‘ed’, ‘-d’ or ‘-t’ to the base form of a regular verb. Such as looked, said, learnt, broken, etc.
The past participle can be preceded by have, has, had, etc. to express the perfect aspect. And it also expresses the passive voice.
– They have invited him to the party.
– A faded flower attracts none.
– It is said by them.
– The floated area is good for cultivation.