An adverb is a word which modifies or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb or any other word(s) or phrase(s) in a sentence; such as quickly, firmly, lightly, carefully, extremely, etc.
Adverb এর কাজ হচ্ছে কোন Verb, Adjective বা Adverb সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য দেওয়া বা প্রদত্ত তথ্যকে আরো তাৎপর্যতাপূর্ণ করে তোলা।
Example:– The leopard runs quickly. ( Here quickly modifies the verb)
– He works extremely hard. (Here extremely modifies the adverb)
– Most of our countrymen are very poor. (Here very modifies the adjective)
– I absolutely have no idea about the matter.
Function of adverb in a sentence:
Adverb adds information and impression about time, manner, place etc. in a sentence.
Form of Adverbs:
Many adverbs that express how an action is performed, end in ‘ly’. However, there are many exceptions, like fast, well, never, least, more, far, now, very, just, still, etc.
Kinds of Adverbs:
There are different kinds of adverbs according to their functions in a sentence.
i. Adverb of Time: Indicates the time of an action, and answer the question ‘when’?
Such as now, soon, still, then, today, yet, since, back, ago, already, before, after, recently, today, lately, tomorrow, once, someday, early, etc.
Example:– I have already finished my job.
– I will do it now.
– The result will be published tomorrow.
ii. Adverb of Manner: Expresses the manner of an action, and answer the question ‘How’?
Such as happily, slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, easily, fast, bravely, hard, well, badly, etc.
Example:– Rafat is speaking quietly.
– He is doing the job carefully.
– The boy is crying loudly.
iii. Adverb of Place: Indicates the place of an action, and answer the question ‘Where’?
Such as here, there, up, down, in, out, by, hither, thither, where, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, nowhere, etc.
Example:– Go out.
– I love to be here.
– People still live there.
iv. Adverb of Degree or Quantity: Expresses quantity, and answer the question ‘How much/ How far/ to what extent’?
Such as extremely, fully, quite, almost, very much, too, a lot, totally, absolutely, fairly, hardly, etc.
Example:– He is quite wrong.
– She is fully cured.
– He is bad enough to kill you.
v. Adverb of Affirmation and negation: Indicate assertion and express the one’s reaction to question.
Such as yes, no, yeah.
Example:– Yes, I can.
– No, she isn’t.
vi. Adverb of Frequency: Expresses the frequency of an action and answer the question “How often”?
Such as never, ever, always, often, seldom, everyday, sometimes, usually, normally, frequently, rarely, hardly, scarcely, once a week, etc.
Example:– He always helps the poor.
– The barking dog seldom bites.
vii. Adverb of reason: Expresses the reason and make the conclusion.
Such as hence, therefore, thence etc.
Example:– He therefore resigned the job.
Conjunctive adverb is used to join two clauses together.
Such as also, finally, furthermore, consequently, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, nevertheless, meanwhile, next, nonetheless, otherwise, then, still, thus, and therefore.
N.B: Conjunctive Adverb joins two independent clauses with a semi-colon.
Example:– The people waited for an hour; finally the train comes to the station.
– The policemen searched the market; indeed the gunman has escaped through the basement door.
Position of Adverb:
General positions of adverbs are as follows:
i. Adverbs of time usually come at the end of a sentence or at the beginning of sentence.
Example:– It may rain today.
– Last night I dreamt a sweet dream.
ii. Adverbs of place usually follow the verb.
Example:– The doctor is in.
– They were everywhere.
iii. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity come before the verb, adjective or adverb.
Example:– He is fairly good.
– You are quite wrong.
– He can run very fast.